From Geneva Gazette 21 August 1896

Geneva in 1821

We are indebted to Mr. Wm. Fordon of our village for a copy of the GENEVA GAZETTE of date June 18, 1821 -- more than 75 years ago.  Its size is about one-half that of its successor of today and subscription price just double -- $2 per year. It was published by Col. James Bogert, a veteran of the war of 1812-15.  Its political columns were devoted to a strong support of "independent nominees for the pending Constitutional Convention," such nominees being Colonel Robert Troup, Gideon Granger, Darius Comstock, Lemuel Chapman and Morris F. Sheppard.  Wayne and Yates counties were then part of Old Ontario.  Other nominations are referred to as "Bucktail", and consisted of Micah Brooks, John Price, Joshua Van Fleet, Philetus Swift and David Sutherland.  Reference is made editorially to objections raised against Col. Troup because he represented English interests as agent of the Pulteney estate.  The GAZETTE vouches for his thorough republicanism. Among other items are these:

"Letters from St. Helena to the 2d April reached London, at which time Bonaparte was in a very good state of
health, and expressed much satisfaction at his new house, and passed most of his time in attending to the decoration of it".

Other foreign news refers to a revolt of several provinces against Turkey and the massing of troops by the Porte to suppress the rebellion.

The marriage announcements in this old paper are Josiah Wendell to Miss Emila C., daughter of Gen. Amos Hale of West Bloomfield, and Robert Pomeroy to Jane M., daughter of Judge Atwater of Canandaigua.

The death announcements are John Freleigh of Seneca, Dr. J. Ray of Pittsford, and Rufus King of Albany.

An item from the Rochester Telegraph refers to the selection of a site for the court house in Monroe county "at the spot called the Public Square, originally laid out by Messrs. Rochester, Fitzhugh & Carroll, a few rods west of the bridge in that village."

The advertising patrons of this old GAZETTE are Ten Eyck and Fondey, general merchandise; Jabez Colt & Co. of Montreal; Hortsen & Tappen, druggists; S. Chapman, of Seneca Falls; Gordon & Son, general merchandise; R. M. Bayley, general merchandise; Ayrault & Co. dry goods and groceries; Dr. Jas. Carter, drugs and medicines; Wm. S. DeZeng, announces the intended removal of his store to Glass Factory Bay; Geneva Academy opened June 11 under the superintendency of Rev. D. McDonald, James Rees, senior trustee.

From Geneva Gazette 30 September 1898


Interesting Items Taken From the Geneva Gazette of Wednesday, Oct. 23, 1833

Joseph Pelow, the Exchange street barber, came across a copy of the GAZETTE of the above date a few days ago, and brought it to our office.  

In looking over its advertising columns we find that Dakin & Woolsey of the Seneca Lake Transportation Co. have established a passenger and freight line to Troy and New York via Erie canal; H. H. Merrill advertises 100 salt barrels for sale; N. Ayrault announces ground plaster for sale; J. Bogert states that he sells lucifer matches which will ignite when drawn through sandpaper; Mitchell & Hayward announce that they have purchased the boot and shoe stock of Ames & Headley; Joseph Thayer advertises the arrival of new dry goods, etc., at his store, 38 Seneca street; H. Hastings pays the highest prices for wheat and other grains; the Geneva Stage Coach Line carries passengers via Ithaca to New York in three days; R. M. Bagley dealt in lottery tickets at No. 6 Seneca street; Flour sold at $5 per barrel and butter at 12c. per lb.  A correspondent touring in the west says "Chicago is beautifully situated at the head of Lake Michigan and is destined to become one of the greatest cities of the far west."  The writer then goes on and lays out a stage coach, steamboat and railroad route whereby the tourist may reach St. Louis in nine days. The old relic also reports that the steamboat Erie made the passage from New York to Albany in 9 hours, 39 minutes. There are numerous other items of interest in this old-time newspaper, but the above will suffice.

From Geneva Gazette 9 February 1849

Constitution of the Ontario Trojan Band

Article 1.  This association shall be called the Ontario Trojan Band and shall continue its existence until
January 1st, 1850.

Article 2.  The object of this Band is to proceed to California by way of Panama, and personally engage in amassing gold by mining operations and for the mutual benefit and protection of its members  --  the number of which shall not exceed thirty persons.
. . . . .etc.

From Geneva Gazette 16 February 1849

The Ontario Trojan Band

The perfect equality which the Constitution of this band gives to all its members is one of its best recommendations.  Every member is bound to toil for the benefit of the whole, and each member is alike amenable to the authority of the whole band.  We invite the careful attention of all who wish to go to California to this project.  It is emphatically an organization of working men.  No stock-jobbing speculation -- no home member drones to feed upon the avails of the laborer -- but all alike to engage with energy, zeal and perseverance in the acquisition of gold for the mutual benefit of the whole.

The members of the band, and those who have signified their intention of joining it -- and such as would like to join it, are requested to meet at my office in Geneva, on Saturday, the 10th inst., at 2 P. M.

From Geneva Gazette 9 March 1849

The Ontario Trojan Band

A number of the members of this Band left Canandaigua last Wednesday on the noon train of cars for Albany
en route for California.  A large concourse of friends were assembled to witness their departure, and as the cars started forward, gave the adventurers three hearty cheers.  The Treasurer of the Band left yesterday, and the Chief of the Band leaves Geneva next Monday, to join his fellow Trojans in New York prior to the sailing of the Crescent City, on Thursday the 15th inst., for Chagres.

The following list shows the names and places of residence of the Ontario Trojan Band for California:

George R. Parburt, Geneva
M. H. Lincoln, Hopewell
Thomas B. Tyler, Gorham
Robert Walker, Canandaigua
Stephen Parrish 2d, Canandaigua
John Swart, Gorham
Seth T. Walker, Canandaigua
Henry Tidman, Canandaigua
James McGowan, Canandaigua
William Rowlatt, Gorham
Marvin D. Mapes, Gorham
Miles B. Clark, Gorham
William E. Tooker, Gorham
James M. Richardson, Gorham
William E. Williamson, Gorham
F. W. Collins, East Bloomfield
Allan Pierce, East Bloomfield
Robert Quick, East Bloomfield
John T. Dickson, East Bloomfield
Lockwood Proper, Potter, Yates Co.
John Wells, Potter, Yates Co.
Henry Pultney, Potter, Yates Co.
James Scott, Italy Hollow
William S. Kemp, Lockport, Niagara Co.
M. S. Thompson, Springport, Cay. Co.
Chas. H. Westfall, Port Jervis, Orange Co.
Levi Westfall, Port Jervis, Orange Co.
Chief of the Band
Vice Chief of the Band
Treas. & Sen. mem of B'd of Conciliation
Associate mem. of B'd of Conciliation
Associate mem. of B'd of Conciliation

There are several applications for membership yet under consideration, and the band may yet be filled up to the number of thirty, which was the number originally intended.  The band is chiefly composed of young farmers, several mechanics and three professional men.

From Geneva Courier 18 June 1851

From the Home Journal

The Village of Geneva

Among the many pleasant and healthy residences in Western New York, the beautiful village of Geneva stands pre-eminent; and now that it can be reached, by means of the New York and Erie Railroad, in thirteen hours from the great metropolis of the State, and from Albany by the Central Railroad, in seven hours, it cannot fail to be much resorted to, not only as a delightful summer residence, but as the permanent home and families who have children to educate, of especially those who are restricted to a moderate income.

Property is low there, and good houses, with spacious gardens and excellent fruit, may be rented at two hundred dollars a year, or can be purchased at proportionate rates.  Many of the most respectable families, including the Professors in the College, professional men and others, live well on salaries and incomes varying from eight hundred to fifteen hundred dollars a year.  The best fire wood can be purchased at from two dollars and fifty cents to two dollars and seventy-five cents a cord. Fresh butter, of the best quality, is usually sold at from twelve and half to fourteen cents a pound; eggs at ten cents a dozen, with meats and other eatables proportionately low.

In addition to several Schools for boys and girls, there is a College with both academic and medical departments, the Professorship in which are filled by men of great worth and high literary and scientific attainments, who, of course, exert an influence upon the social circle, always tending to elevate and refine.  In this College, upon the suggestion of one of its trustees, (in 1825), was first established an English department under the same Professors with the Classical department, which has been continued then to the present time, and has since been copied by some of the other Colleges in this State and in New England -- thus obviating the objection of exclusiveness so long made against the higher seminaries of learning.  The term bills at Geneva do not exceed forty-six dollars a year, including tuition, room rent and all other charges.  Boarding in respectable families can be obtained at from two dollars to two dollars and fifty cents a week, and at the best hotels at from two dollars and fifty cents to three dollars a week.  

The population of Geneva is about five thousand, who may be described as an intelligent, respectable, church-going people.

There are several large and well-built church edifices of the Episcopal, Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed, Methodist, and other
denominations.  The Episcopal Church, which is built of stone, is a beautiful specimen of Gothic architecture, with windows of stained glass.  This may be regarded as the metropolitan church of the diocese of Western New York, and the Bishop, the Rt. Rev. Wm. H. DeLancey, resides in the village.

Geneva is beautifully situated on the west bank of the Seneca Lake which is forty miles long, and varying from two to four miles in width.  This lake is entered by three of the State canals, viz.; the Cayuga and Seneca, the Crooked Lake, and the Chemung.  The water is remarkably pure, and owing to its great depth, never freezes.  The steamboats running between Geneva and Jefferson, at the head of the lake, make the daily trips with as much punctuality in winter as in summer, and at least one of these boats, the Ben Loder, may well be classed, both as to size and speed, with the best now afloat on any of the waters of this State, with accommodations inferior to none.  This beautiful boat with all its furniture and equipments, is the work of mechanics residing in the village, and furnishes a truthful advertisement of their taste and skill.  The engine only was made at the West Point Foundry.  The boilers, which are of a peculiar construction, were made at the works of the intelligent and enterprising proprietor, John R. Johnson, Esq.  These are upright and, of course, occupy much less room, which alone is an important recommendation; but they possess other advantages over the ordinary boilers and, although introduced by Mr. Johnson against the opinion of a number of practical engineers, it is gratifying to know that his anticipations have been fully realized, and that these boilers will now, doubtless, pass into general use.  The fuel may be either wood or coal; the Blossburg coal is the kind now used, and answers every purpose.

Owing to the influence, in winter, of the open lake, the temperature of which is always above freezing, the climate of Geneva is particularly favorable for the cultivation of peaches, grapes, quinces, and other fruits which do not flourish in many places of the same latitude.  The writer of this article has eaten as good peaches, apricots and grapes which were raised in the open grounds at Geneva, as any that come to the New York market.

In summer, the nights at Geneva are usually cool and refreshing, without any mosquitos, which torment us so much in New York and its vicinity.  The village is well supplied with water from the White Springs farm, the residence of Mrs. Lee, the much-respected widow of the late Gideon Lee, formerly Mayor of New York.

A number of families, deservedly occupying high social position, have already been attracted from this city to Geneva, and doubtless many more will follow.  Some of the best farms in the neighborhood are occupied by gentlemen who have evinced their good sense as well as their good taste in retiring from the ceaseless round of excitements, and the fitful changes of business to these peaceful walks of rural life, "where the rivers run among the hills, and where the valleys stand thick with corn."  How great the change -- from the conventional arrangements and restraints of artificial life, under the despotism of fashion -- from an atmosphere always more or less tainted with physical and moral poison, to the free and balmy air of fields and gardens, with all the delightful associations of trees, shrubs, plants and flowers, the silent yet truthful witnesses of an invisible hand, ever teaching the most impressive lessons that man can learn, and always pointing us from Nature up to Nature's God.

All who visit Geneva cannot fail to be favorably impressed by the good taste everywhere displayed in the cultivation of shrubs, plants, and flowers, and the trees that shade and ornament the streets and grounds.  The gardens on the east side of Main street are strikingly picturesque and beautiful, by being terraced to the lake, the descent being nearly one hundred feet.  I have already said that the inhabitants of Geneva are intelligent and respectable.  I will now add that there probably is no village in the State where the impress of refinement and cultivation is more distinctly marked.  

I might go on to say much more of this delightful spot, this oasis, not of a desert, but of as rich, fertile, and beautiful tract of country as any on this continent.  But I will reserve this for another occasion on which I purpose to say something of this garden of the State of New York.       New York, June 1851

From Geneva Gazette 12 March 1875

A Relic of Forty Years Ago

Mr. Conover, our village President, in overhauling and arranging old documents and papers in our village archives, came across the following memorial, which we produce as recalling the names of earlier citizens, so many of whom have passed away, and as indicating their patriotic reverence for the memory of one of our most illustrious defenders - Gen. La Fayette. The "filing" alone tells its date -- 1834.

To the Trustees of the Village of Geneva:

Gentlemen  --  Information having come to hand through the medium of yesterday's papers, announcing the death of Gen'l GILBERT MOTTIER LA FAYETTE, the friend and companion of Washington and the adopted son of our country; we, the undersigned, feeling a desire that the demise of this great and good man should not pass without some expression on the part of our citizens of the deep and heartfelt regret which must pervade the heart of every American patriot at this dispensation of Providence, would respectfully recommend and request that a meeting of the village corporation be called forthwith for the purpose of taking such order thereon as may be deemed suitable to the occasion.

W. V. I. Mercer
John Wood
Geo. Wight
P. Hastings
A. Messer
D. Field jun'r
John Woods
G. W. Cromwell
R. Hogarth
J. S. Hogarth
Peter M. Dox
Charles S. Bronson
Sexton Mount
W. W. Watson
Wm. Mager
S. H. Bostwick
William Inslee
J. Gray
David S. Skaats
Jacob Larzelere
Wm. Hudson
John W. Nevius
C. A. Cook
J. M. Soverhill
Henry Stephens
J. M. Page
S. Buckley
Harvey Tomlinson
Luther Kelly
George Wood
David Carey
W. E. Sill
R. W. Stoddard
Alonzo Seymour
Chas. T. Brouer
Nathan Parke
H. V. R. Schemerhorn
Robert C. Nicholas
G. P. Stephens
Samuel Robinson
Robert Daskam
H. Brizse
A. H. Barber
H. Hastings
L. W. Hamblin
James Gillespie
W. S. DeZeng
Theodore Hinman jr.
J. A. Coffin
Charles Butler
W. Gordon
William Cole
Hugh Black
David Wilson
Josiah Anderson
John Hall
John Greves
Oliver S. Phelps
G. H. Merrill
J. Thayer
J. Snow
M. M. Williams
E. Hastings
Phinehas Prouty
David S. Hall
D. L. Lum
John W. Tillman
R. M. Bayly
J. B. Rumny
D. G. Johnson
Jerome Loomis
H. H. Bogert
Wm. H. Townsend
H. DeGraff
A. Hemiup
Geo. Merrill
G. H. Haskill
H. A. Nagly
C. Rodney
Geo. A. Condit
Levi A. Stevens
R. Bedell
S. L. Wood
John N. Bogert
W. W. Carter
T. B. Tallmadge
Jas. B. Dungan
S. Hemenway
R. Hemenway
John Fargo
Joseph I. Scidmore
E. H. Gordon
A. I. Wynkoop
J. F. Jenkins
John C. Merrill
David Hudson
Ducondray Holstein
S. B. Grosvenor
A. H. Osborn
U. E. Lewis
James Rees
John H. Stagg
C. Powell
Peter Staats
John D. Locke
Wm. W. Greene
Joseph C. Northup
Abr'm B. Hall
B. Stainton
Wm. Tippetts
A. Fleming
Septs Evans
J. Smith
S. H. Rose
J. R. Morrison

Of the one hundred and sixteen signers to this memorial, only fifteen are to us known to be now living, viz:

Asa Messer
Peter M. Dox
David S. Hall
Jacob Larzelere
J. M. Soverhill
John M. Page
Wm. E. Sill
Samuel Robinson
Geo. A. Condit
Jno. N. Bogert
Wm. S. DeZeng
David Wilson
B. Stainton
Dr. J. Smith
J. R. Morrison

There may be possibly other survivors of this roll, the original of which we believe contains the largest number of autographs in existence of old residents.

From Geneva Gazette 26 March 1875

A Relic of Fifty Years Ago

Mr. Editor - In the Gazette of March 12th you have given a very interesting column from the heading:  "A Relic of Forty Years Ago."  In looking the article over it gave me a good deal of historic pleasure; most of the names I have heard in my youth, and in fact I could call to mind the appearance of more than half of that one hundred and sixteen men.  But if I cannot produce a relic with so formidable an array of names, I can go you one of ten years older, and one possessing far more local interest to Geneva, I claim, than your forty year document.  It is this:

To the Com'rs of Highways of the Town of Seneca:

Gentlemen:  Having heard that a petition had been presented to you requesting a road to be laid out commencing at the west end of Washington street in Geneva, running west through the farm of Josiah Reed, we beg leave respectfully and firmly to remonstrate against
that measure as unnecessary for public travel or convenience, and expensive in purchasing the land and making the road.  For these and other reasons we deem it improper to lay out such road as a public highway.

Dated Seneca, May 10, 1824

R. Hogarth
Horace Kingsley
J. Rice
John I. Freleigh
W. Grissel
John Sloan Sr.
H. S. White
David Squier
F. Barnard
D. Field Jr.
Thomas Lynds
Wm. Goff
Edward White
Nathan Reed
John Reed
John Scoon
E. Hall
Benj. Tuttle
Solomon Gardner
Josiah Smith
Mitchell M. Combs
John S. Reed
Phineas Stow
A. Lewis
Artemus Stow (Stone)
Ezekiel Roberts
Nathan Reed 2d
Joseph Hammond
Thomas Barron
William Smith
Isaac L. Latts
Thomas Crawford
Shubael Hammond
John How--d

In endeavoring to copy above list it may be that I have got the two names of "Stow" wrong, although the handwriting is good it does not appear to me that I have got them correct.  Also I cannot make out another name part of which I have dashed.  Perhaps the name of "Mitchell M. Combs" is not deciphered correctly.  The paper is backed for filing as follows:  "Petition and Remonstrance for road -- 1824," but the petition does not accompany the document.

From Geneva Gazette 3 September 1886



Street Scenes and Buildings

The peculiar beauty of Geneva is proverbial, but I should perhaps make mention of some of the most prominent mansions, churches and other structures that give a distinctive character to the scenery.  The writer cannot do better than to mention first Rose Hill, the splendid estate of Robert J. Swan.  It stands on a high ridge of land on the opposite side of the lake from the village, the grounds and rich meadows running to the shore.

Crossing over to the town we have on the north the home grounds of the brothers Maxwell, and of Messrs. W. & T. Smith.  Leaving Castle road and going south on the Pre-emption, one passes the Van Dusen nurseries with their beautiful hedges of cedar.  At the head of Hamilton street is Maple Hill, the suburban home of a former New Yorker, and on the opposite corner the residence at one time of the well-known Captain Tuttle, now owned by Captain J. S. Lewis, the intimate personal friend of the late Judge Folger.  It was a favorite retreat of the great jurist when home from the cares of state for a short period, and often the Judge with his constant friend would wend his way to this charming spot and spend a good share of the day strolling around the estate and vicinity, leaving for the town at dusk, refreshed and invigorated by the excursion.

It is an interesting fact that on this corner in 1825 a large party of gentlemen awaited the coming of General LaFayette to act as a guard of honor when he visited Geneva during his triumphal progress through the state.

On the terrace below this road and on Jay street is the villa of ex-Senator Hammond; on the same ridge the elegant dwellings of Mr. Patterson and the late Judge Foot, the latter now the property of William Smith.

Several tasty mansions are on the shore of the lake.  One of the most romantic is the cottage formerly owned by Mr. Otis, adjoining the home of Colonel Miller, another spacious and eligible mansion.  Some distance nearer the village is the handsome residence of W. J. King, on the bluff.  It is on the site of what was once a flourishing academic school.

On Main street, which runs from the sightly residence of Hon. W. W. Wright on the North to Mile Point on the South, we have many other homes deserving special mention.  Among the more prominent is the handsome Doric structure occupied by President Potter of Hobart; the former residence of General Hillhouse, now owned by Professor Nash; and Com. Merriman's commanding house, built by Col. Prince; and the late residence of Secretary Folger.

On Genesee street we have the ornate houses of S. K. Nester and Mr. George Hemiup, and several others.  On North street the houses of Thomas McBlain, A. Ansley, John Dove, and Chas. A. Steele, and the Torrey mansion, now owned by Wm. Smith.  On Exchange street the parsonage of Rev. Father McManus and on Washington street "The Hermitage".

A tourist passing through our business streets is impressed by the activity and bustle alike visible and audible in all the conditions of street life.  In fact the true key to the character of our citizens is the daily aspect of our leading streets, and although the throng is not always continuous, it possesses true metropolitan push and energy.

A walk up Seneca and Exchange streets will repay the visitor who has leisure.  He may not find many handsome structures, but he will have seen the chief business portions of the town, as also the building devoted to our city government.

Should the belated traveler desire other sights there is the arc and incandescent electric light stations, and the new mineral spring which is receiving much attention from the juveniles, and older people as well.

Geneva as a representative town of American wealth and culture possesses several noble buildings.  Of course she has not those millionaire structures to be found in some cities of great size, but for buildings possessing fitness of design she is not excelled.

Foremost among these are the various college halls, professors' houses, school buildings, business structures, foundries, hotels and malt-houses.

The ecclesiastical edifices of Geneva are also worthy in a measure of the town's future greatness, the principal denominations seeming to have vied with each other in the erection of commodious churches, and in no direction has Geneva's public spirit shown itself to better advantage or more effectively.

Among the finest we notice old Trinity on South Main street, a grand edifice of gray stone with an English tower.  A magnificent memorial stained-glass window, painted to order in Europe, is in the chancel.  There are also several interesting marble tablets in the interior.

St. Peter's church on Genesee park is celebrated for its entrancing chimes which ring out on all important occasions as well as for church services.  On the opposite corner is the North Presbyterian church, also of gray stone, with a graceful and slender spire.  Rev. Dr. Hogarth has been the popular pastor until within a recent period.

It would be invidious to mention more instances of our striking architecture, particularly  church edifices, though the temptation to dilate on their imposing facades and salient features is very great.


The tourist who visits Geneva and is at last obliged to tear himself away from its charms, always carries with him, according to his own account, enduring memories of our attractive and picturesque environs; the whole town offering advantages that but few places equal and none surpass.  But one improvement is lacking, a great public park.  The Superintendent of the State Experimental Station, who is an enthusiastic advocate of this scheme, intends sometime if possible to utilize a large natural glen and woods on the Station, and with the help of a landscape artist turn the same into a "Wild Garden."  Then we should indeed
have a place where all might revel.

At present we have the Pre-Emption race-course where twice a year all wend their way.  The enclosure is also used for the annual Union Fair, and as the grounds of the Lakeside Gun Club.

There are two beautiful parks in the middle of the town which, though small, are much admired.

West of the village are many fine pieces of woods including Sylvan Grove, while to the south are Cromwell's Ravine and Slate Rock.  Both of these glens are quite celebrated.

In the absence of a Park, we have as compensation a beautiful lake which entire year proves a source of delight.

As may be imagined Geneva has always been a great place for aquatic sport.  It began with swimming instituted by the hardy young pioneers, then in succession came rafting, sailing, canal boating, and finally the palace steamers of the Steam Navigation Company which cut swiftly their native element.

The first fast sailer was the old "Cygnet", and she was "streaked lightning".  When entered for a regatta anywhere Genevans always supported her, and she always won the race.  The yacht was finally put up at lottery and won by Geo. M. Horton, who sold her to some gentlemen who moved her to Lake Ontario where she became a smuggler, and so remained until she finally went to pieces.

The first "shell" was the eight-oared "Lady-of-the-Lake", brought here in 1857.  It should have had a steam engine to make it go--but still there was plenty of fun with it.  The boat's greatest defect was tipping over, pitching its occupants into the water, and coming to the surface bottom upwards.  As from experience the oarsmen were usually prepared for such a contingency, these involuntary baths were not harmful.

Extending out into the lake is a long State pier.  A few years since a liberal-hearted citizen, the President of the village, Matthew Wilson, built mostly at his own expense two swimming houses for the boys and young men of the town, and the public are thus able to enjoy this most exhilarating and healthful sport.  It is not an uncommon sight on warm summer evenings to see a score or more of sturdy, happy urchins sporting in the water as if it were their native element; while a little later their strapping elder brothers come, and soon they too plunge in and manifest their delight by turning back-somersaults and other antics that "wash" all care away.

The streets of Geneva are very attractive to our citizens on Sunday afternoons owing to good walks and luxuriant shade.  No matter in what direction we go there is the same pleasant, attractive scene.  The fences are mostly taken away, and the private grounds which almost every home possesses, seem to be a part of public property with their choice shrubbery and brilliant flower beds.  We have no bronze statues of public men, but they will come in time, and the men themselves we have !

One of the pleasant customs incident to outdoor life is that most of our grand places with their beautiful grounds and drives have their entrance gates thrown invitingly open, and tourists may feel themselves at liberty to drive through the same, usually of course without alighting from their carriage.  It is taken more as a compliment than otherwise, and the kindly though unwritten privilege is very rarely abused if ever.

There is a project on foot to take the Hobart Esplanade on South Main street and turn it into an improved park, with an aquarium on the lake shore.  The plan is quite elaborate but nothing has as yet been done in the way of work.  There is also another plan which has thus far progressed at the same rate.  It is the plan of turning a fine piece of woods and meadow between Castle and Washington streets west of the village, into an archery grounds and shooting range.  We would recommend this to the Geneva Improvement Association.

Several valuable improvements have been made in Geneva within a few years in the way of landscape gardening; the laying out of Poultney park, Hamilton terrace, and Glenwood cemetery.  In this section, as in other parts of the town, there are many fine places, though of course there is no comparison between these and hundreds of houses in surrounding cities; and boasting of the natural attractions which we possess, let us claim no more than we have but strive to develop the resources which nature has so bountifully showered upon us, and

"Unless fate has faithless grown,
And the voice of prophet vain,
Geneva is destined to be the place
To which the traveler returns again."

From Geneva Gazette 30 May 1890

Local Reminiscences

Seeing your remarks in the last GAZETTE upon the improvements on North Main st. north of Seneca, recalls to my mind scenes of early days around the "five points," Main, Milton and Castle sts.  My recollection begins back in the twenties. When the Geneva Bank building was erected, (now Chase's office) Anthony Hemiup kept a grocery and general variety store at the corner of Main and Seneca sts. where Geo. Bennett is now located.   An ascent of several steps landed you inside.  The Stainton family occupied the house north, and Mr. John Stainton (father of Levi, Bryan and several other boys and girls) owned the entire block north to Coursey's alley, and on Seneca street down to the McKay property.  Next to Stainton's residence came Chester Francis, who moved in from the White Springs woolen mills and started a steam woolen factory north of Sherman H. Rose's carriage shop --  the latter standing where is now the Harrow works, and whereon the GAZETTE received its baptism of fire several years ago -- at which fire the writer chanced to be first on the ground, burst open the doors, and did his best to preserve books, records, papers, &c.

North of the Stainton-Coursey alley stood a small building.  In this house "Bubby" Keeler taught school.  In the yard back of it stood a small wood-colored house occupied by Tom Harris, also colored, who was a prize fighter and the accomplice of Hubbard in robbing David S. Skaats of his tin box containing $1,500.  Adjoining this school-house on the north was a red house occupied by a Mr. Sutton.  He manufactured churns, and had two sons -- Walt and Newt.  It was in this house I received my first temperance lecture.  Geneva at that time was not under the "Carson League," although there were three "meetin' houses."
Anthony Hemiup, the groceryman, had emptied about a bushel of "whiskey cherries" in the middle of Main street, and these boys, together with many others, ate to their fill of the spirit fruit.  The Sutton boys were taken home and laid out on the bed. Dr. Kimber came over but could do nothing for them.  I was taken into the room to see the dead (drunk) boys; there they lay, white as marble.  I was then told of the evil effects of the use of whiskey -- and if they should die then they would go down, down to that other place!  That sufficed for me.  I made up my mind never to drink any whiskey cherries.  The next morning the boys were all on deck, but with swelled heads.  The next building stood over the creek, Nathan Daskam's bakery and cooper shop. Next came George Hemiup's stable, and on the corner of Main and Castle streets, his tavern. Between the tavern and stable was Hemiup's chair shop.  West of this, or on the corner of Main and Milton streets, stood "Granny" Mills" house. Her garden ran south to the creek, having in front of it five beautiful poplar trees.  West of this garden of sunflowers, hollihocks and artichokes was the "Pound".  Next south came the Kimber block.  In the building fitted up by the late Dr. Budd, Wm. Giffing resided and carried on silver smithing.  I now have spoons of his make.  Giffing had charge of the fireworks at the time of the explosion, July 4th, 1842, the the Rev'd. John Easter and Joseph Fulton were killed. On the south side of Milton st., near where the Baptist Church now stands, and next west of Granny Mills' house, stood the large yellow house Dey house. Between that and Pulteney street was the old barn where Aaron Young began the manufacture of lead pipe.  The next house was around the corner on Pulteney street, south of the cemetery, occupied by Lorin Bennett -- now I believe by Platt Demming.  At the head of Milton st. and on the west side of Pulteney street stood the Axtell mansion, bounded on the south by what is now called High street.  This road ran through the colored settlement up to Reed's woods and sugar camp.  South of this road as far as William street was Fellows' hickory grove, surrounded or enclosed by a rail fence.  Not a house in this grove for some distance up the road.  Russell Robbins I believe was the first to break sod in this square, B. W. Springstead next, and so on.

It was in this grove that I smoked my first cigar. I had seen Sam Kimber "chaw" tobacco in Keeler's school with several boys of his age with indifferent success, but the difference was decidedly against them when they tried to induce me to take some of it in my mouth, for I was not favorably impressed with the color of their faces; and when they left the party and ran round behind the school house, I decidedly said "No, no, boys, none for me -- I won't chaw."  But the desire to be a man still lingered within me.  Not many years after this I made up my mind to have a quiet 4th of July all by myself.  I purchased two packs of fire crackers, went to Caleb Yeomans' grocery, next door north of Doolittle's "Elephant" tavern, opposite DeZeng's Eagle store; there I secured a cigar for one cent ! -- Hemiup charged three cts.  I then made tracks for the grove. Arriving there I at once commenced operations by lighting my first cigar.  You know there must be a first.  Well, I then broke open the fire crackers, and I did have a jolly good time for awhile.  But there are pleasures that have an end and so I found it. After a while the crackers would go off two and three at a time.  I would burn first one finger, and then another; then the fence would come up against my head and give me such a rap!  And finally the tree by which I was sitting fell up and gave me an awful rap; I really did not know what to make of it.  What had I done to that tree?  There was something wrong here ! I knew I had not drunk any whiskey cherries, yet verdant as I was I could not but think there was some of the Sutton whiskey cherries in Caleb's cigar.  (I was under 16 then.)  And now, really, to tell you the truth, I was not feeling very well myself, and in that mood I started for home.  The last I remember I was lying by the fence on Milton street in front of the lead factory.  If you wish a description of my complexion consult Mr. W. H.

Thus ended my 4th of July celebration.  Moral -- Don't smoke, don't chew, don't drink whiskey cherries.

Several years later this grove was the scene of a far more pleasant 4th.  Gideon Lee, ex-Mayor of New York, had purchased and moved on to the White Springs farm.  The 4th of July committee took it into their heads to call upon this newcomer for a sub--they did so.  On looking at the sub, the committee were astonished when they read, "Gideon Lee, $100.00."  This was a stunner !  Gideon was at once voted President of the day -- hickory grove the place for a grand blow-out -- Nathan Daskam chosen caterer, and he did provide a grand dinner.  Young America must needs do their best, so Jack Young, George Northop & Co. took their little "peacemaker" early in the day, broke the quiet and slumber of father Gideon. Although it was yet early right royally were they entertained by the President.  It was a big day for Geneva.  I didn't smoke that 4th.

P. S.  This before General Cass was a candidate for President of the U. S.  


From Geneva Gazette 6 June 1890

Local Reminiscences

As related in my first article, the tavern on the corner of Castle and Main street was kept by George Hemiup, who also manufactured chairs.  His sons were Morris W., Norton and Charles L., all still living.  East of this on Castle lived the Lums, the boys were Dave, Stute and Will.  Adjoining them came Peter Thomas -- the boys were named Jack, Pete and Joe; then we came to Wm. Green.  His only son was Henry. Below them came Moses Hall, his only sons were William, John and Henry. Opposite came Samuel Green.  His sons were Samuel and John.  The next lot was Handfield's, where Elm street now runs.  Next west was the two story dwelling, much as it now is, where at different times lived John, Henry and Robert Daskam, brothers of Nathan, who were all bakers and coopers.  Their thatched shop was back in the garden. The two boys, as I remember, were John and William.  Next west was Jacocks, a carpenter, and joining that for a time lived George Bennett. His sons were John, Charles, Henry and George.  On the corner opposite the tavern stood a small wood tenement house, variously occupied, a family by the name of Castle I remember -- afterwards as a cooper shop. Continuing north on Main street, we've come to the Colt's meadow; and directly opposite Joseph Fulton's dwelling (now occupied by Thomas Shanley) stood Colt's barn. Continuing north we come to the Marshall dwelling.  This house stood on the south of Castle creek, the creek passing partly through the garden. Mr. Marshall's sons were George and Daniel, who now reside in Cleveland, O.  The former once occupied the Mayor's chair of that City. These three buildings covered the entire ground from Castle street to what is now is known as Lewis street.

Colt's meadow mentioned above extended from Main to now Genesee street.  This field was sometimes cultivated, but used mostly as a meadow or pasture, and parade or training ground.  Here I first saw the sun glass.  It was harvest time. There were probably a dozen German men, women and children, dressed out in their gorgeous colors of red, yellow and blue.  At their noon just east of the barn, squatted on the ground, they partook of their rustic meal, then lit their huge pipes of tobacco with the sun glass.  This was previous to the day of lucifer matches.  It was just about upon this same spot where the great fight came off between Tom Harris (colored) and an Englishman -- I think a connection of the Ask family.  Seeing a great crowd going towards the meadow, I followed.  The crowd went over the fence; there was to be a big fight; the two men stripped to the waist -- a large ring was formed.  The darkey (sic) turned his back to the fence, thus facing the sun.  Some one said "go at it!"  The two men advanced toward each other.  The Englishman elevated his pair of fives.  After a few moments of this manoevering, Harris backed a few steps, eyed the Englishman with meteoric eyes, made a furious rush for his opponent with head down, and arms flying much after the manner of a windmill.  The Englishman stood as erect as a statue -- his arms at "due gard" and as cool as a cucumber. When Harris got within say five feet of him, The Englishman dropped his arms, closed his thumbs together, slipped them under Harris's chin and held him out at arm's length.  Not a blow was struck.  The Englishman gently closed his thumbs and fingers around Harris's breathing apparatus until the crowd said "lay him down," which he did, and there on the grass lay Mr. Harris, the bucking colored gentleman, about as mum as we now frequently see the canines after some friend (?) of theirs has visited the Apothecary's.  But the appearance of that face in action!  Reader, you have undoubtedly seen the moon in an eclipse.  Well, multiply that by two, and you can imagine the rest. This was my first and last appearance at a prize ring.  Hi. Suydam and Pete Thomas were there.

Continuing our journey north we pass Lewis street.  Just on the side hill is the Robinson house, and near by it is Genl. Dobbin's dwelling.  Moses R. Hand lived next, his sons were Mose and Silas.  Between this and the north or Waterloo road there was a small rough barn sometimes used as a slaughter-house.  Near this, and not far from S. H. Parker's present dwelling was Hemiup's brick yard.  At that date there were five dwellings and two barns on the east side of Main north of Castle street. Between the Carter or Middle road and the Lyons road or Water street, on the north side, were but the two dwellings of Dr. Rose and Thos. D. Burrall.  A little east of the Burrall mansion and near where the R. R. crosses was situated the Burrall foundry.

Returning to Main street; opposite the brick yard and on the west side stood the residence of John T. Clemmons.  His sons were named Anson, William and Charles.  Over Castle creek stood Joseph Fulton's slaughter-house, and opposite of Lewis street near the present residence of John McKay was the Lewis property.  North of this to the North road were the Doremous, Elliot, Clemons and a butcher by the name of Spendlove (no relation to our departed friend Harry.)  At the foot of Main where Mrs. W. W. Wright now lives the General Trainings were sometimes held.  In the field between the creek and the Lewis residence where the German Evangelical Church now stands were frequently held the muster, or June drills.  Next south of the slaughter-house stood a double dwelling.  An English shoemaker by the name of Castle occupied one end of this house.  The John Prue lot next.  Then came Miss Diamon's school; next Fulton's; his sons were James, William and Joe.

John Brazee lived on the corner where now stands the Universalist House of Worship -- he had one son, John.  There were two dwellings between Fulton's and Brazee's.  From this corner going west we first meet the Snyder property; the second from that was the Dr. Merryweather residence.  The Doctor was a noted personage.  Having been brought up a slave, he was master of sufficient suavity to slush the ways of a steamboat when the sixpence was in sight.  He was porter at the Franklin.  We next come to Aaron Young.  His sons were John, Frank and Will -- all still living.  

The house has changed very little, and the same may be said of the Edwin Barnard house that stood next west.  Next came Reuben Bedell -- one son, Ambrose.  The Allen Pump factory came next; there were two Allen boys -- two sons, Henry and William.  Then the Hayes house.  Next east of the Castle creek stood the brick cottage of Giles Parker.  He had seven sons: Ira and John the two oldest, and Henry, the fifth, have passed to the other side.  On the Hill beyond lived Philip C. Ruckle, a retired New York merchant.  His sons were James, Philip and John.

Opposite this place we find the Sam'l Codington family.  His sons were Charles, John, George, Henry, William and Edward, and two daughters -- Catharine and Caroline.  Here was the celebrated dam and saw mill.  West of this were situated the Gregory dwelling and tannery.  Opposite the tannery was Smith's woods and Fisher family, and where Sterling built, and where T. C. Maxwell now lives.  West of these woods and where Wm. Smith's Observatory is situated were cultivated fields. General trainings were sometimes held here.  No dwellings until we come to King Swayles, now the State Farm, east of the Indian burying ground.  To this mound the Indians would often resort, but I never have seen over ten or twelve there at any one time, and never saw them hold any ceremony whatever.


From Geneva Gazette 29 April 1892


There are a few left of Geneva boys born in 1821-22.  Memory is quite vivid with most of them as to men and things in 1832 and onward.

Said John D. Young in talking over old times recently, "you recollect that queer old codger Ayres, who came in from the country on the Castle road.  Usually had his wife with him.  What a rig he drove; a 2-wheeled vehicle with a little hay in it. Instead of a whip he wielded a large whipstock or cane with which he incessantly punched the old "hoss" to keep him on a lazy trot.  In one of my mischievous pranks I found opportunity to unhitch the traces and fasten the driving lines to the hame rings. You ought to have seen the old man's surprise when he punched up the horse and the brute pulled out of the thills, almost hauling him over the dashboard.  I put in an appearance about that time and fairly convinced the old man that he made the mistake in hitching up.  'Mebbe I have -- I'm getting pretty old.'

"And then there was another quaint old fellow -- a regular Johnny Bull in his swallow-tail coat, knee breeches and buckle shoes. That was Billy Swales.  He owned and lived on the farm now constituting the the State Agricultural Station.  He afterwards sold it to Charles Godfrey.

"And then there was Israel Crittenden, who used to ride to and fro between his farm and the village on horseback and at a pretty lively gait for one who carried so much 'ardent' in his skin.  But I never knew him to meet with an accident.

"Jerome Loomis, the Revolutionary patriot, 'driving his old horse "Lark,"' was another familiar figure in his long white queue often seen on the Castle road.  The boys always looked upon the old soldier with admiration.  Three only of his very large family remain.

"Then there were two positive characters in our immediate neighborhood -- Adam Wilson, the English cavalryman who fought under Wellington at Waterloo.  He still retained his huge broadsword, and when he got pretty full, as was too often the case, he was prone to imagine that his wife and children were dastard followers of the hated Napoleon, and he would flourish his weapon too dangerously near their inoffensive heads.  Often they would have to flee to neighbors for protection during his warlike moods.  A boon companion of his was the little sawed-off, round-shouldered Daniel James.  How often I have seen them 'holding up the fence' along by Pete Earle's house.  And when they parted it was invariably with the assurance of the stalwart soldier, 'we're frens for life, Daniel -- we're frens fer life!'

And Pliny Jennings.  Will you ever forget Pliny Jennings?  What an old sardine he was; how he loved to gossip; knew everybody and everybody's pedigree.  And how he loved to tease poor old Mary Carey, another character as quaint as any going to make up our community.  Homely !  It's no name for it.  Wall-eyed, and face so wrinkled you couldn't put a pin point on a smooth place.  She resided till her death on Catharine street -- now dignified by the name West Avenue.

"Charley Campbell -- he was another never-to-be-forgotten character.  What fun we had with old Charley.  And he enjoyed the fun too, and would take any amount of boys' nonsense until they began to pull at his coat-tails -- then look out for stones -- he always carried a few for such emergency in his pockets.  I wish you could put in type so as to be understood the queer sound that came from his throat in emphasizing a retort to our badgerings.  He made a special 'circus' for us at general trainings.

"Poor old 'Granny Mills'.  Do you remember the occasion when her house burned down over her head?  It stood on the spot where Brundage's carriage shop now stands.  It was with difficulty she was restrained from rushing in and perishing with the destruction of her humble dwelling.  What a search was made by us boys for the gold and silver treasure supposed to be buried in the ruins.  The 'finds' however did not make any of us rich.

"Well, this will do for one chapter.  Let us get together again and talk over 'old times.' "  (Agreed.)

From Geneva Gazette 3 June 1892


As Seen Through Swiss Eyes

Some two or three months ago Mr. D. F. Attwood, President of our village, received a request for documents and information relating to it.  The applicant was a newspaper editor or correspondent in Geneva, Switzerland, who thought that his fellow citizens would be interested in some brief account of all the American GENEVAS. His request being complied with, he now courteously sends to President Attwood and others the net results of his study of our character and our history.  We give below a somewhat free translation of this article, (it appeared originally in French), believing that our readers will be glad to avail themselves of the "giftie" so earnestly coveted by the poet Burns -- "to see oursel's as others see us."

The women tax-payers will be sorry to learn that our Swiss friend is in error in his statement that les femmes recalcitrantes cannot be forced like the men to pay their taxes.  To be sure, the charter provides that no body execution shall issue against women, but this is their only exemption from the processes of the collector.  As the provision for a "body execution" is never put in force against the men, women and men are practically on the same footing in this respect.


Mr. Editor, I have presented to your readers eighteen American Genevas.  I would like today to talk with them about the GENEVA of New York, eldest of the Genevas of the United States.  Let a map of the state of New York be consulted; upon the same degree of longitude as Washington and nearly upon the 43rd degree of north latitude is found a village called Geneva, situated at the north of a lake.  In order to point out its position precisely we will add that Geneva, N. Y. is 105 miles east of Lake Erie, 25 miles south of lake Ontario, 220 miles north-east of New York, and almost upon the same degree of latitude as Toulon.  Five little lakes about half as large as lake Leman flow from south to north, parallel to one another, and upon an average about 12 miles apart. Their northern extremity is about  twenty-five miles south of Lake Erie which is almost as large as Switzerland. Going from east to west these lakes are Skaneateles, Owasco, Cayuga, Seneca and Canandaigua.

Geneva, N. Y., situated at the north of lake Seneca, is ten days by post from the Swiss Geneva.

Mr. D. F. Attwood, president of the Board of Trustees of this Geneva, sends me some documents of recent date relating to its settlement.  Ex-president George S. Conover is its historiographer. It is through his kindness that I am able to offer you the following statement:

The first official document concerning Geneva, N. Y., is a letter from Dr. Cabb Benton to William Walker, surveyor and land agent dated Oct. 15, 1788.  Nine other official documents bearing the name of Geneva and a date following one another up to Sept. 20th, 1791, which is the date of a description by Elkanah Watson in his newspaper.  It was nine months, then, before the presidency of Washington, and eight years after Major Andre, the Swiss Genevan, had been shot by Washington as a spy and buried as a hero by England in Westminister Abbey, that the Geneva of New York was settled.  While surveyors were laying out the boundaries of Geneva, N. Y., this is what was happening in the Swiss Geneva:  (It is the historian Jullien who writes:)  "The wealthy people of Geneva were generous; in September, 1788, the city of Sion, capital of Valais, was laid waste by a fire which consumed a hundred and twenty-six houses and caused a loss of more than a million; the contributions of Geneva amounted to more than forty-three thousand florins."

And now a few words about the pre-historic American Geneva which called itself Kanadesaga.  The army of Gen. Sullivan made the tour of the lake now called Seneca September 17th, 1779.  At the north of it they found a prosperous Indian village, chief place of the Kanadesaga tribe.  There they saw a beautiful apple-orchard surrounding a fortress known later as Indian Castle.  Mr. Conover gives us a detailed account of the most renowned chiefs of the Kanadesagas in 1788.  On the 4th of June of this year, Oliver Phelps arrived at this Indian village; was struck by its beauty and by its favorable situation from a commercial point of view.  He there wrote a letter in which one reads these memorable words:  "We mean to found a city here."  The chronicler reports to us the dramatic history of the debates between the Indian chiefs and the Americans Phelps and Gorham over the cession of the territory of the new Geneva.  He gives us the speech of Red Jacket against the American offers, and the reply of Farmer's Brother in favor of acceptance.  All this took place in the presence of the tribes assembled in a clearing of the virgin forest.  It was then in the autumn of 1788 that Kanadesaga took the name of Geneva, and became the isolated outpost of what was called the Geneva country.  Soon it became the rendezvous of traders going to the great lakes.  Taverns, cottages, surveyors, speculators, explorers, the Leasee company and its agents, (some educated men and gentlemen), a crowd of vagrants -- the foam on the crest of the westward-moving wave, -- all seized by the fever of hope and ambition.

Phelps and Gorham, the first owners, sold what remained of their tract to Robert Morris in 1790.  He, in turn, sold his title through his London agent to Sir William Pulteney, John Harnbey and Patrick Colqumann, but these gentlemen not being Americans and being by this fact disqualified to acquire real estate in America, sent over their agent, Mr. Charles Williamson, who became naturalized and thus bought land in the new Geneva in his name for the English financiers.  This deed was signed April 11th, 1792.

The appearance of the new Geneva was less attractive than that of Kanadesaga, its predecessor; in fact, Elkanah Watson who visited it in 1791 wrote the following lines on the 21st of September:  "Geneva is an unhealthy little village consisting of about fifteen houses, all of wood except three, and perhaps twenty families. We were well enough received at the Patterson tavern, situated upon the shore of the lake, but our sleep was disturbed nearly all night by gamblers and fleas, those two social plagues." In 1793, Captain Williamson had a new survey of the village made.  The charts and the original plans have not been preserved.  Historian Conover despairs of finding them again.

Lakes Cayuga and Seneca have been explored with the greatest care by Professors E. Fuertes and Crandall and Mr. J. P. Church.  Students of engineering worked in 1878 and 1883 to take soundings and to make surveys. Exact charts of the bottoms of these lakes have been prepared.  Seneca Lake is thirty-four miles in length; its greatest width is 3.12 miles, and its greatest depth is 618 English feet.  In other words, Seneca Lake measured upon Lake Leman would stretch from Geneva to Ouehy in length, and from Nyon to Nernier in its greatest width.

The town government of Geneva is excellent.  Public and private gambling houses are prohibited, also, horse-racing. Unreasonably fast driving is forbidden, and the public is warned not to play at hoop or ball, or to engage in any game through which persons passing by might be injured.

On the third Tuesday in May, at ten in the morning, all tax-payers are gathered in a general assembly to approve or reject the annual budget which is submitted to them by the Trustees of the Village Board.  And, a thing unknown in Europe !  Women who are tax-payers "refuse to pay their taxes cannot, like the men, be forced to pay."

Any person who does not observe the proprieties of language, or is not decently clothed, is liable to a fine. Bathing in the lake, or in the water-courses traversing the village limits, except at night, is forbidden.

It appears that the supervision of public morals is as severe as it was in our Geneva in the days of Calvin.

Locomotives and steamboats are not allowed to whistle within the village limits except in case of impending danger. The code from which I borrow these laws consists of a hundred and fifty pages, and appears to me to be a model of clearness and judicious foresight.

The authorities of the Geneva New York have been touched by the sympathetic comparison which I have endeavored to establish between the Geneva of Julius Caesar and the first Geneva of the New World.  May these reciprocal sentiments bear fruit in the future !  It is my dearest wish.

Robert Harvey

From Geneva Gazette 9 April 1897


Geneva Glass Factory

Mr. H. L. DeZeng recently came into possession, through the kindness of Mr. J. B. Church, of a relic of one of Geneva's earliest industries -- the Geneva Glass Factory.  It is a transcript of the law passed in May, 1810, incorporating the company, supplied by the then Secretary of State, and bearing the faded but still distinct seal of the State.  The incorporators included Abraham Dox, Joseph Fellows, John Greig, Samuel Colt, Nathaniel Gorham, James Bogert and others. The total number of shares authorized was 2500 at $50 each -- total $125,000.  Mr. Wm. S. DeZeng came into the project seven years later, or in 1817, from which time it seems that he wielded the laboring oar in this important enterprise. The act of incorporation was approved and signed by Gov. Daniel D. Tompkins, certified by Daniel Hale, Secretary of State.  The memoranda accompanying shows a dividend in "boxes of window glass of 3/4 box per share."  What its value in dollars and cents we are unable at this day to figure out.  Mr. DeZeng proposes to place these relics of a by-gone age in local history in the College Library.  The documents are 80 and 87 years old respectively, and among the most ancient to be found in our local archives.

From Geneva Gazette 13 August 1897

The Old Glass Factory -
Mr. H. L. DeZeng, whose father, W. S. DeZeng, was principal manager of the industry, has sketched from memory of the plant all the buildings and residences constituting the Glass Factory plant located at the bay on Seneca Lake which still bears the name "Glass Factory Bay."  The date at which Mr. DeZeng fixes in memory the old plant is
1841.  The operating buildings were near the lake shore and consisted of a "blowing" factory, cutting and flattening buildings, office, store, barns, and along the west side of the highway a row of five houses, then a school house, and further up on the hill under the shade of a large willow tree, the more commodious home of John Fowler, the foreman of the works.  It was about the only factory of importance in this whole region at that time.  Its products were sent to out-of-town markets by lake and canal -- we had no railroad entering Geneva at that time.  We well remember visiting the factory in '41 or '42 and witnessing with boyish wonder the interesting process of "blowing glass".  The workmen before the ovens had about as warm a time of it as do operatives in a rolling mill or iron casting foundry.  The glass-blowers were paid good wages and earned them.  Not a vestige of the old factory remains; the Fall Brook railroad tracks traverse its site.  Maxwell's extensive fruit orchard occupies the land west of and adjacent to the factory hamlet, and on lands then cultivated to grain and grass.

From Geneva Daily Times 19 March 1928

Mrs. A. B. Johnson,
formerly of this city and now town historian of Caledonia, New York, in a communication to The Times, states that the two-story barn at 188 Castle street, recently destroyed by fire, is the site of a barn built by her father and later added to by his son-in-law, the late Alfred B. Levet.

In some further historical reminiscences she makes references to her family home on Castle street, one of the first houses built here, called a mud-built house because of its construction. It was later clapboarded over.

Mrs. Johnson has also unearthed some material concerning Horatio Jones, a soldier on Sullivan's expedition, who was captured by the Indians. He was adopted into an Indian family, learned the language, and after his release settled in Geneva. His first wife was Sarah Whittemore, and their son, William, was born in the village of Geneva in December 1786. This boy is supposed to have been the first white child born west of Utica in this state.

From Geneva Courier 3 September 1879


From measurements made by W. G. Powers, surveyor, according to the distances laid out on the old authentic maps, it is ascertained that this line commencing at the lake and running due west, magnetically 1789, passed, on the east side of Exchange street, a point about 3 1/2 feet south of the McCurdy alley, and crossing the street at about the center of Kent's clothing store and so on to Linden street where it passes through the Courier printing house, at a point about 4 inches south of the third window sill from the north  end of the building. The line continues then due west, passing the north end of the Pulteney St. burial ground, and through the centre of High street to the old pre-emption line.

This line is the basis of all the early surveys and from which the village was originally surveyed and plotted, and is today the foundation of all the present allotments. The measurements of Mr. Powers were not made with any pretension of positive accuracy, using only a tape line for this purpose, but is approximately correct, and sufficient for present purposes.

Peter Ryckman's house stood just one chain south of the line and doubtless occupied the position of the north part of the house in which Fisher's meat market is on the east side of Exchange street. In 1788 the Lessee Company had a framed tavern and trading establishment covered with bark, on the lake shore, which was occupied by Dr. Benton. This was about at the foot of Washington street on what is now south Exchange street.

In 1791 Elkanah Watson visited Geneva and wrote that it was a small unhealthy village of about 15 houses, all log except three, and about 20 families. He had decent accommodations at Patterson's tavern on the margins of the lake, but his repose was troubled most of the night by gamblers and fleas. Ezra Patterson owned the lot on which the Dove block, corner of Castle and Exchange streets now is, in 1793, and (illegible) doubtless the location of his (illegible)

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